संस्कृत में गिनती

संस्कृत हिंदी English
1 प्रथमः एक One
2 द्वितीयः दो Two
3 तृतीयः,त्रीणि तीन Three
4 चतुर्थः चार Four
5 पंचमः पाँच Five
6 षष्टः छः Six
7 सप्तमः सात Seven
8 अष्टमः आठ Eight
9 नवमः नौ Nine
10 दशमः दस Ten
11 एकादशः ग्यारह Eleven
12 द्वादशः बारह Twelve
13 त्रयोदशः तेरह Thirteen
14 चतुर्दशः चौदह Fourteen
15 पंचदशः,पञ्चदश पन्द्रह Fifteen
16 षोड़शः सोलह Sixteen
17 सप्तदशः सत्रह Seventeen
18 अष्टादशः अठारह Eighteen
19 एकोनविंशतिः,ऊनविंशतिः उन्नीस Nineteen
20 विंशतिः बीस Twenty
21 एकविंशतिः इक्कीस Twenty One
22 द्वाविंशतिः बाइस Twenty Two
23 त्रयोविंशतिः तेइस Twenty Three
24 चतुर्विंशतिः चौबीस Twenty Four
25 पञ्चविंशतिः पच्चीस Twenty Five
26 षड्विंशतिः छब्बीस Twenty Six
27 सप्तविंशतिः सत्ताईस Twenty Seven
28 अष्टविंशतिः अट् ठाईस Twenty Eight
29 नवविंशतिः,एकोनत्रिंशत् उनतीस Twenty Nine
30 त्रिंशत् तीस Thirty
31 एकत्रिंशत् इकत्तीस Thirty One
32 द्वात्रिंशत् बत्तीस Thirty Two
33 त्रयस्त्रिंशत् तेतीस Thirty Three
34 चतुर्त्रिंशत् चौतीस Thirty Four
35 पञ्चत्रिंशत् पैंतीस Thirty Five
36 षट्त्रिंशत् छत्तीस Thirty Six
37 सप्तत्रिंशत् सैंतीस Thirty Seven
38 अष्टात्रिंशत् अड़तीस Thirty Eight
39 ऊनचत्वारिंशत्, एकोनचत्वारिंशत्,उनतालीस Thirty Nine
40 चत्वारिंशत् चालीस Forty
41 एकचत्वारिंशत् इकतालीस Forty One
42 द्वाचत्वारिंशत् बियालीस Forty Two
43 त्रिचत्वारिंशत् तेतालीस Forty Three
44 चतुश्चत्वारिंशत् चबालीस Forty Four
45 पंचचत्वारिंशत् पैंतालीस Forty Five
46 षट्चत्वारिंशत् छियालीस Forty Sic
47 सप्तचत्वारिंशत् सैंतालीस Forty Seven
48 अष्टचत्वारिंशत् अड़तालीस Forty Eight
49 एकोनपञ्चाशत्, ऊनचत्वारिंशत् Forty Nine
50 पञ्चाशत् पचास Fifty
51 एकपञ्चाशत् इकक्यावन Fifty One
52 द्वापञ्चाशत् बाबन Fifty Two
53 त्रिपञ्चाशत् तिरेपन Fifty Three
54 चतुःपञ्चाशत् चौबन Fifty Four
55 पञ्चपञ्चाशत् पच्पन Fifty Five
56 षट्पञ्चाशत् छप्पन Fifty Six
57 सप्तपञ्चाशत् सत्तावन Fifty Seven
58 अष्टपञ्चाशत् अट् ठावन Fifty Eight
59 एकोनषष्टिः,ऊनषष्टिः उनसठ Fifty Nine
60 षष्टिः साठ Sixty
61 एकषष्टिः इकसठ Sixty One
62 द्विषष्टिः बासठ Sixty Two
63 त्रिषष्टिः तिरेसठ Sixty Three
64 चतुःषष्टिः चौसठ Sixty Four
65 पंचषष्टिः पैसठ Sixty Five
66 षट्षष्टिः छियासठ Sixty Six
67 सप्तषष्टिः सडसठ Sixty Seven
68 अष्टषष्टिः अडसठ Sixty Eight
69 एकोनसप्ततिः,ऊनसप्ततिः उनहत्तर Sixty Nine
70 सप्ततिः सत्तर Seventy
71 एकसप्ततिः इकहत्तर Seventy One
72 द्विसप्ततिः बहत्तर Seventy Two
73 त्रिसप्ततिः तिहत्तर Seventy Three
74 चतुःसप्ततिः चौहत्तर Seventy Four
75 पंचसप्ततिः पिचत्तर Seventy Five
76 षट्सप्ततिः छियत्तर Seventy Six
77 सप्तसप्ततिः सतत्तर Seventy Seven
78 अष्टसप्ततिः अठत्तर Seventy Eight
79 नवसप्ततिः, एकोनाशीतिः,ऊनाशीतिः उनयासी Seventy Nine
80 अशीतिः अस्सी Eighty
81 एकाशीतिः इक्यासी Eighty One
82 द्वाशीतिः बियासी Eighty Two
83 त्रयाशीतिः तिरासी Eighty Three
84 चतुराशीतिः चौरासी Eighty Four
85 पंचाशीतिः पिच्चासी Eighty Five
86 षडशीतिः छियासी Eighty Six
87 सप्ताशीतिः सत्तासी Eighty Seven
88 अष्टाशीतिः अट् ठासी Eighty Eight
89 नवाशीतिः,एकोननवतिः, ऊननवतिः नवासी Eighty Nine
90 नवतिः नब्बे Ninety
91 एकनवतिः इक्यानवे Ninety One
92 द्वानवतिः बानवे Ninety Two
93 त्रिनवतिः तिरानवे Ninety Three
94 चतुर्नवतिः चौरानवे Ninety Four
95 पंचनवतिः पिचानवे Ninety Five
96 षण्णवतिः छियानवे Ninety Six
97 सप्तनवतिः सतानवे Ninety Seven
98 अष्टनवतिः, अष्टानवतिः अठानवे Ninety Eight
99 नवनवतिः, एकोनशतम्, ऊनशतम् निन्यानवे Ninety Nine
100 शतम्, एकशतम् सौ, एक सौ Hundred,One hundred
101 एकाधिक शतम् एक सौएक One hundred one
1000 सहसम्र एक हजार One Thousand
10000 अयुतम् दस हजार Ten Thousand
100000 लक्षम् एक लाख One Lac

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संस्कृत लकार

संस्कृत भाषा में लकार कुल दस होते हैं।

  • लट् लकार (Present Tense)
  • लोट् लकार (Imperative Mood)
  • लङ्ग् लकार (Past Tense)
  • लृट् लकार (Second Future Tense)
  • विधिलिङ्ग् लकार (Potential Mood)
  • आशीर्लिन्ग लकार (Benedictive Mood)
  • लिट् लकार (Past Perfect Tense)
  • लुट् लकार (First Future Tense or Periphrastic)
  • लृङ्ग् लकार (Conditional Mood)
  • लुङ्ग् लकार (Perfect Tense)

 

उनमें से सबसे मुख्य पाँच लकार होते हैं। (लट् लकार, लङ् लकार, लोट् लकार, लृट् लकार तथा विधि लिङ् लकार) ही प्रचलन में है और इन्ही संस्कृत लाकर का सबसे ज्यादा प्रयोग भी किया जाता है।

इस बात को स्मरण रखने के लिए कि धातु से कब किस लकार को जोड़ेंगे, निम्न श्लोक स्मरण कर लीजिए-

लट् वर्तमाने लेट् वेदे भूते लुङ् लङ् लिटस्‍तथा ।
विध्‍याशिषोर्लिङ् लोटौ च लुट् लृट् लृङ् च भविष्‍यति ॥

अर्थात् लट् लकार वर्तमान काल में, लेट् लकार केवल वेद में, भूतकाल में लुङ् लङ् और लिट्, विधि और आशीर्वाद में लिङ् और लोट् लकार तथा भविष्यत् काल में लुट् लृट् और लृङ् लकारों का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

 

लट् लकार (Present Tense)

लट् लकार – (वर्तमान काल), वाक्य, उदाहरण, अर्थ – संस्कृत वर्तमान काल में लट् लकार का प्रयोग होता है। क्रिया के जिस रूप से कार्य का वर्तमान समय में होना पाया जाता है, उसे वर्तमान काल कहते हैं, जैसे- राम घर जाता है- रामः गृहं गच्छति। इस वाक्य में ‘जाना’ क्रिया का प्रारम्भ होना तो पाया जाता है, लेकिन समाप्त होने का संकेत नहीं मिल रहा है। ‘जाना’ क्रिया निरन्तर चल रही है। अतः यहाँ वर्तमान काल है। क्रिया सदैव अपने कर्ता के अनुसार ही प्रयुक्त होती है। कर्त्ता जिस पुरुष, वचन तथा काल का होता है, क्रिया भी उसी पुरुष, वचन तथा काल की ही प्रयुक्त होती है। यह स्पष्ट ही किया जा चुका है कि मध्यम पुरुष में युष्मद् शब्द (त्वम्) के रूप तथा उत्तम पुरुष में अस्मद् शब्द (अहम्) के रूप ही प्रयुक्त होते हैं। शेष जितने भी संज्ञा या सर्वनाम के रूप हैं, वे सब प्रथम पुरुष में ही प्रयोग किये जाते हैं।

1. युष्मद् तथा अस्मद् के रूप स्त्रीलिंग तथा पुल्लिंग में एक समान ही होते हैं।
2. वर्तमान काल की क्रिया के आगे ‘स्म‘ जोड़ देने पर वह भूतकाल की हो जाती है, जैसे– रामः गच्छति। (राम जाता है), वर्तमान काल- रामः गच्छति स्म। (राम गया था) भूत काल।

 

लोट् लकार (Imperative Mood)

लोट् लकार – (आज्ञार्थक), वाक्य, उदाहरण, अर्थ, आज्ञा, प्रार्थना अनुमति, आशीर्वाद आदि का बोध कराने के लिये लोट् लकार का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

 

 

लङ्ग् लकार (Past Tense)

लङ् लकार – (अनद्यतन भूत काल), वाक्य, उदाहरण, अर्थ – संस्कृत. अनद्यतन भूत में लङ् लकार होता है, जो कार्य आज से पूर्व हो चुका है अर्थात् क्रिया आज समाप्त नहीं हुई बल्कि कल या उससे भी पूर्व हो चुकी है, वह अनद्यतन काल होता है।

 

 

लृट् लकार (Second Future Tense)

लृट् लकार – (सामान्य भविष्यत काल), वाक्य, उदाहरण, अर्थ – संस्कृत. सामान्य भविष्यत काल में ‘लुट् लकार’ का प्रयोग किया जाता है। क्रिया के जिस रूप से उसके भविष्य में सामान्य रूप से होने का पता चले, उसे ‘सामान्य भविष्यत काल’ कहते हैं; जैसे – विमला पुस्तकं पठिष्यति। (विमला पुस्तक पढ़ेगी।)

 

 

विधिलिङ्ग् लकार (Potential Mood)

विधिलिङ् लकार – (चाहिए के अर्थ में), वाक्य, उदाहरण, अर्थ – संस्कृत विधि (चाहिये)निमन्त्रण, आदेश, विधान, उपदेश, प्रश्न तथा प्रार्थना आदि अर्थों का बोध कराने के लिये विधि लिङ् लकार का प्रयोग किया जाता है ।

 

आशीर्लिन्ग लकार (Benedictive Mood)

आशीर्लिन्ग लकार – (आशीर्वादात्मक), वाक्य, उदाहरण, अर्थ – संस्कृत. आशीर्वाद के अर्थ में आशीलिङ् लकार का प्रयोग किया जाता है, जैसे– रामः विजीयात्। (राम विजयी हो।)

 

 

लिट् लकार (Past Perfect Tense)

लिट् लकार – (परोक्ष भूत काल), वाक्य, उदाहरण, अर्थ – संस्कृत. ‘परोक्ष भूत काल’ में लिट् लकार का प्रयोग होता है। जो कार्य आँखों के सामने पारित होता है, उसे परोक्ष भूतकाल कहते हैं।

उत्तम पुरुष में लिट् लकार का प्रयोग केवल स्वप्न या उन्मत्त अवस्था में ही होता है; जैसे– सुप्तोऽहं किल विलाप। (मैंने सोते में विलाप किया।)
या जो अपने साथ न घटित होकर किसी इतिहास का विषय हो । जैसे :– रामः रावणं ममार । ( राम ने रावण को मारा ।)

 

 

लुट् लकार (First Future Tense or Periphrastic)

लुट् लकार – (अनद्यतन भविष्यत काल) में लुट् लकार का प्रयोग होता है। बीती हुई रात्रि के बारह बजे से, आने वाली रात के बारह बजे तक के समय को ‘अद्यतन’ (आज का समय) कहा जाता है। आने वाली रात्रि के बारह बजे के बाद का जो समय होता है उसे अनद्यतन भविष्यत काल कहते हैं; जैसे – अहं श्व: गमिष्यामि। (मैं कल जाऊँगा)

 

 

लृङ्ग् लकार (Conditional Mood)

लृङ्ग् लकार – (हेतु हेतुमद भूतकाल), वाक्य, उदाहरण, अर्थ – संस्कृत. क्रियातिपत्ति में लृङ्ग् लकार होता है। जहाँ पर भूतकाल की एक क्रिया दूसरी क्रिया पर आश्रित होती है, वहाँ पर हेतु हेतुमद भूतकाल होता है। इस काल के वाक्यों में एक शर्त सी लगी होती है; जैसे– यदि अहम् अपठिष्यम् तर्हि विद्वान अभविष्यम्। (यदि मैं पढ़ता तो विद्वान् हो जाता।). जब किसी क्रिया की असिद्धि हो गई हो । जैसे :- यदि त्वम् अपठिष्यत् तर्हि विद्वान् भवितुम् अर्हिष्यत् । (यदि तू पढ़ता तो विद्वान् बनता।)

 

 

लुङ्ग् लकार (Perfect Tense)

लुङ्ग् लकार – (सामान्य भूत काल), वाक्य, उदाहरण, अर्थ – संस्कृत. लुङ् लकार में सामान्य भूत काल का प्रयोग होता है। क्रिया के जिस रूप में भूतकाल के साधारण रूप का बोध होता है, उसे सामान्य काल कहते हैं। सामान्य भूत काल का प्रयोग प्रायः सभी अतीत कालों के लिये किया जाता है; जैसे– अहं पुस्तकम् अपाठिषम्। (मैंने पुस्तक पढ़ी।)

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I shall not live in vain…

 

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Book Review – The Patient Assassin by Anita Anand

 

The Patient Assassin: A True Tale of Massacre, Revenge and the RajThe Patient Assassin: A True Tale of Massacre, Revenge and the RajAnita Anand
5 of 5 stars

This is the fascinating story of Sardar Udham Singh who patiently but meticulously planned the assassination of the culprits of Jallianwala Massacre at Amritsar. The massacre in 1919 is arguably the most cowardly and dastardly act by British imperialiam anywhere in their brutal empire and led to the cold blooded execution of around 2000 unarmed and peaceful demostrators in a park in Amritsar including numerous women and children. It took Udham Singh more than two decades to bring his plan to execution but ultimately he did it in style by shooting dead Sir Michael O’Dwyer at London thus ending the life of a bigot who had ordered Martial Law in Punjab which ultimately resulted in the infamous massacre. Udham Singh took over the fictional identity of Mohammed Singh Azad in executing the revenge plan, a name which has a syllable each of the Muslim, Sikh and Hindu communities trying to unite Indian people who were being deliberately misled by the divide and rule policies of British occupation forces.

The author has done commendable research to bring to light hidden aspects of Udham Singh’s life, how he abandoned the love of his life, his own children and never let anything come in between him and his revenge. The story of Udham Singh’s meeting with Bhagat Singh, another Indian nationalist hero in Punjab jail where both were incarcerated at the same time needs perhaps further research but meeting with young Braveheart was quite impactful on Udham Singh and made his resolve ever firmer to exact revenge for Amritsar massacre.

The narrative of Indian independence struggle was hijacked by Nehru and Gandhi duo post 1947 and an utter falsehood of non violent nature of the struggle was imprinted on the minds of Indian population. This meant that the contribution of heroes like Udham Singh was sidelined or in most cases suppressed. Indian independence struggle was multi faceted and the part played by Ghadar party has been underplayed, it’s enlightening to read this story and understand the role of the number of Ghadar party leaders like Lala Hardayal who kept the armed struggle against the British occupation running as far as he Californian shores, Mexico border, Communist Russia, UK and other numerous locations.

The book also brings to the light, depravity of Nehru and Gandhi who publicly denounced the courageous act of Sardar Udham Singh at behest of their English lords, never in the annals of history, would anyone find a treachery as horrendous as that. What was worse was that Nehru actually ensured that his crony Krishan Menon was part of the defence of Udham Singh at London court-house and the guy did not let Nehru down. It is on record that Krishan Menon did not utter even a single word at the farce trial in defence of Udham Singh and he went one step further by ensuring that the final words of Udham Singh in that courtroom never see the light of the day. The author dug out those final words of Udham Singh’s and I wish that outcry of Inquilab Zindabad in defence of his motherland reaches to the ears of every Indian who should absolutely read this book. It took a Modi government to get the hero his due and after a lapse of seven decades, a statue of the Udham Singh was finally installed at Jallianwala park in 2018. A nation which cannot give its own heroes their due is bound to fail, it’s high time we Indians take cognisance of our own heroes and throw the pretenders like Nehru to the dustbin of history.

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Book Review – Whereabouts by Jhumpa Lahiri

 

WhereaboutsWhereabouts by Jhumpa Lahiri
3 of 5 stars

What is the point of writing this book? Life in modern world is at best empty and barren, the rampant virus has exacerbated that loneliness in the last couple of years. But with or without the virus, that is a common malady of this era, lonely people looking out for ‘crumbs of happiness’ from others. Nobody wants to invest in relationships or familial bonds but expect others to show kindness or even shower love on them. But is it a topic worthy of writing a book about? Perhaps, if author has a possible remedy or even hint of a cure… but Jhumpa Lahiri does not offer any of that in the book. The book is self translated in English by the author from Italian, in which it was originally written. I read the English translation so can’t even adjudge if Italian version is any better. The translated book is more like a diary of an Italian woman living alone, working in some academic field, seems a bit autobiographical. There is no storyline, just small chapters where the protagonist ruminates about her life and others she meets, a bit of voyeurism in it. Every book is an expression of reality that an author is purpose bound to spill out , but I’m not sure what is it for this one. Each chapter covers some random thoughts from the protagonist, there is an attempt to connect the storyline but reader is left bewildered on the point behind reviewing the life of a bored and lonely middle aged woman. The setting is an austere apartment in some remote Italian town and there are only a handful of characters in the book, all of whom happen to cross paths with the protagonist in her daily mundane life. That’s all there is in the book. Jhumpa’s earlier works were better but will give her a pass on this one as it looks more an experiment by the author on writing in Italian, a new language for a native English writer.

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Book Review – Stranger to History by Aatish Taseer

 

Stranger to History: A Son's Journey through Islamic LandsStranger to History: A Son’s Journey through Islamic LandsAatish Taseer
5 of 5 stars

 

Aatish Taseer was conceived of a whirlwind affair between a Pakistani Muslim politician and an Indian Sikh Journalist. And life can never be simple born on such fault lines of incompatible religious and political outlooks. This memoir is interesting because it shows in glaring light how an individual’s life gets affected by these societal constructs of statehood and religious identity. Aatish did a commendable job at documenting these fault lines in lucid prose and insightful observations while visiting Turkey, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Iran and Pakistan capturing how faith has affected the broader society. Another great writer, V.S. Naipaul did a similar journey across some of these countries and made more or less similar observations, but with Aatish it was more of a personal discovery whereas Naipaul’s observations were more of a neutral and unbiased spectator.

Aatish’s father left him and his mother when he was just 18 months old and he was raised alone by his Sikh mother in Delhi. All his childhood he lived with a ghost of an absent father and tried to make sense of his absence from his life. As a grown up he wanted to understand and decode these rifts created by ideological and political differences that are powerful enough to make a father abandon his own child and wife. For Aatish it was an attempt towards personal discovery, a pilgrimage of sorts. He wanted to understand how Islamic faith can seep in a society and trump familial bindings as well as moral and ethical values. He starts his journey in Turkey where he discovers how political regime is trying to keep faith at bay causing dichotomy in society. People attracted to faith end up creating their own ghettos, in spite of heavy censure from the state. They have built little glasshouses where faith can be planted keeping out the vices of modernity and state persecution. The young’s of the society are forced to learn secular values at schools by state but at homes they live within the shackles of faith introduced to them by their families and that is confusing to them. He observes that society has got divided among the faithfuls and not so faithfuls and is almost on cusp of open conflict between these two worldviews.

Next Aatish moves to Syria in search of a purer form of Islam but there he finds that regime is using faith to further their own agenda. All problems of governance are blamed not on an inefficient and corrupt government but on ‘world system’ that somehow is limiting the purity of faith. He finds that faithful from all over the world have congregated in Syria in search of the pure faith which they cannot experience in their native lands. This search for purity has made the society so finicky that they’re ready to kill and destroy for some cartoons published in a far away Norway, in the name of faith. Aatish observed that blaming outsiders for their internal problems is an attitude of a defeated civilisation which is stuck in the past long gone glory.

Aatish’s next stop is the headquarters of faith i.e. Saudi Arabia, there he performs Umrah at Grand Mosque but gets chided for wearing the articles of another faith on his body by the believers. Aatish laments the fact Islam is so exclusive that it can’t tolerate even a petty signature from a different faith on a believers body. But his own internal struggle with faith is more threatening to him than a verbal slight from a faithful. Aatish also observes that faith is in every aspect of life in Saudi Arabia and that stifles any progress or change. He questions this aspect of faith where it has to be everywhere in an individual’s life, in food, in clothing, even in bedroom. He observes that this was not always like this but is a recent phenomena when Sunni Wahhabism took hold in Saudi Arabia with the discovery of oil.

Aatish interested in seeing the other flavour of Shia Islam lands next at Tehran but there he observes that regime has used faith to criminalise the whole society. People have been booked and even beaten mercilessly for any petty misdemeanours like wearing a T-Shirt or putting lipstick, he calls it a tyranny of trifles. Interestingly he manages to meet a group of Iskon followers in Tehran who have left faith to go and start worshipping Krishna, Hindu god. He observes that regime’s brutality has disenchanted the whole society with mosques left empty and people openly questioning the basic tenets of faith. The highlight of this section is the heart rending story of a woman who has lost count of the times she has been booked and beaten, in particular one instance where she was beaten mercilessly for no reason et al by a group of plainclothesman. The regime finally got sniff of Aatish and he was questioned by security agencies and was not able to get an extension of his tourist visa forcing him to leave abruptly for Pakistan, his final destination.

For Aatish, Pakistan was not much different from India, he observed that though the country was created on the principle of faith but it is now anchored more on the negation of India than anything else. He visits a feudal lord in Sindh province and observes that feudalism is so prevalent in Sindh because of the lack of a middle class, society is made up of only haves and have nots. Hindus who earlier formed bulk of middle class in Sindh moved out during partition and Muhajirs who migrated to Sindh from India could not fill that gap causing a stunted society. He moves to Hyderabad next where he encounters a community stuck in the past, left destitute by the state. Faith has not been able create a cohesive society and he observes open enmity between Sindhi’s and Muhajirs communities causing widespread disaffection with faith and people waiting for the next big idea that can keep the society intact. Even the mighty Indus has been reduced to a thin stream of water not because of faith but degradation of faith in Pakistan is a good analogy for a river getting dry due to climate change.

Finally Aatish reaches Lahore where he meets his father after a long gap but could not get that closeness from him that he expected. He remains baffled why his father is still not ready to accept him as his own son, and how social constructs like faith and politics are still able to suppress the basic human emotions.

It’s a good book to understand the impact of faith on Islamic societies and how faith is being used by corrupt regimes to stifle freedom and enquiry in these societies.

 

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Don’t Rush Me, Please

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How Pakistan’s A.Q. Khan, father of the ‘Muslim bomb,’ escaped Mossad assassination – Israel News – Haaretz.com

Abdul Qadeer Khan, who died this week in Islamabad, got Pakistan the bomb, stole and sold atomic secrets, profited from a shady global proliferation network, helped Iran go nuclear, aided Qaddafi’s reactor ambitions – and still passed away from natural causes, not at the hands of the Mossad
— Read on www.haaretz.com/israel-news/how-pakistan-s-a-q-khan-father-of-the-muslim-bomb-escaped-mossad-assassination-1.10282556

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Book Review – Stages of Meditation by Dalai Lama XIV

Stages of MeditationStages of Meditation by Dalai Lama XIV
5 of 5 stars

This book records the commentary on Kamalashila’s Stages of Meditation” as rendered by His Holiness Dalai Lama to his close followers in Manali 1989. Acharya Kamalashila was a great scholar-saint of the ninth century and a disciple of the great abbot Shantarakshita. Kamalashila composed the text in three parts , initial, intermediate and last stages of meditation. In this book His Holiness Dalai Lama covers the intermediate stages of meditation.

The introduction to the book covers the reasons why everybody should pursue meditation. Compassion, altruistic thought, and the perfect view are the fundamentals and lifeblood of the path to highest enlightenment. In words of the Superior Nagarjuna

“If you wish to attain the unsurpassed enlightenment
For yourself and the world,
The root is generation of an altruistic thought
That is stable and firm like mountain,
As all-embracing compassion.
And a transcendent wisdom free of duality.”

One thing everybody should be very clear is that Dharma teachings have only one purpose: to discipline the mind. In the process of our spiritual practice, we must examine ourselves thoroughly and use Dharma as a mirror in which to see reflected the defects of our body, speech, and mind. When we are able to reduce the defects of the mind, its good qualities increase. We should pay attention to the fundamentals like the practice of the three trainings – renunciation, the awakening mind of bodhicitta, and the wisdom realizing emptiness. The first step is to cultivate within our minds those positive qualities taught by the Buddha. After properly discipling our own minds, then we may hope to help discipline other’s minds. Acharya Dharmakirti has taught this principle in very lucid terms:

“When the technique is obscure [to you]
Explanation is naturally difficult”

For a Dharma practitioner, one of the main challenges is to counter our disturbing emotions and finally free ourselves from them. The difficulty of this is due to the simple truth that disturbing emotions have from beginingless time caused us to suffer all kind of miseries. The whole purpose of meditation is to lessen the deluded afflictions of our mind and eventually eradicate them from their very roots. This constitutes the elimination of the three defects and cultivation of six favourable intentions.

The first of the three defects is listening in a way that is like an upside down container. So when someone is teaching, we’re in fact not listening at all. In such a case we have no interest in the teachings and do not hear anything that is taught. The second of the defects is to listen in a way that is like a container with holes, This mean though we’re listening to the teachings, we do not retain their contents due to lack of mindfulness. The third defect concerns the motivation, and is likened to a vessel containing poison. All Dharma practices must be done with a wholesome motivation and all deluded motives should be erased. These defects are obviously a great obstacle to learning, and we must eliminate these problem and attend to the teachings with keen interest.

Chapter One looks at Mind and Consciousness. There are two types of existent phenomenon: those that exist permanently and those that exist at some times but not at others. What is the implication of this second kind – existing at times but not existing at others? The implication is that temporary things depend on causes. The fact that certain things are produced at certain times proves the existence of causes. Causes are of different types, such as substantial cause, direct cause, indirect cause, cause of equal state, concomitant cause and so forth. Similarly, there are various types of conditions like objective condition, causal condition, immediate condition, and so forth. So those phenomenon that depend on causes and conditions change by nature; they do not abide in one place and they are not permanent. Conditioned phenomena in turn can be classed under three categories – form, consciousness, and neither of the two. Form consists of such aspects as shape, colour, and so forth, which can be sensed. Consciousness has neither shape nor colour and cannot be measured in any physical terms, but it exists in its nature in ability to feel and sense. Time, on the other hand, has neither form nor consciousness and belongs to the third category. The state of omniscience is the ultimate goal encompassing every perfection, and of the three categories of conditioned phenomenon, it belongs to the category of consciousness. Knowing or understanding is the function of consciousness. Consciousness vary in the scope of their knowledge and in their intensity or sharpness e.g. human consciousness is much bigger then animal’s. The consciousness of human beings also vary with education and experience – the more educated you are and the more experience you have, broader your consciousness. Knowledge and understanding develop on the basis of a consciousness that has the ability to perceive its objects. When necessary conditions are met, its ability to perceive increases, the scope of its objects of knowledge expands, and understanding deepens. In this way the mind can develop its full potential of Omniscience, which is the full consummation, or perfection, of the mind’s ability to perceive objects.

Chapter Two is about training the mind which entails a process of familiarization with worldly reality. In the Buddhist context, familiarization, or meditation, refers to the positive transformation of the mind, that is, to the elimination of its defective qualities and the improvement of its positive qualities. Through meditation we can train our minds in such a way that negative qualities are abandoned and positive qualities are generated and enhanced. In general we talk about two types of meditation: analytical and single-pointed. First, the object of meditation is put through a process of analysis in which one repeatedly attempts to gain familiarity with the subject matter. Second, when the practitioner has gained a good deal of certainty about the object of meditation, the mind is made to concentrate on it without further analysis. We must recognize the importance of training the mind, It arises from the fundamental fact that each and every one of us innately desires happiness and does not want misery. The basic purpose of education, for instance, is to gain happiness and avoid misery. Individuals struggle through the process of education so that they can enjoy a successful and meaningful life. We’ve looked at mind or consciousness and also at the importance of training the mind. The human mind does not have any existence independent of the human body. The consciousness that has particular relation to the human body is referred to as human consciousness. The human mind, or consciousness, actually consists of a vast number of minds, some subtle and some coarse. Many of the coarser types are connected to a sense organ like the eye, and many of them are definitely connected to the brain. It is obvious that these external bases, or factors, are essential for a consciousness to arise. But the main cause of any mind is the preceding moment of consciousness, whose nature is clarity and awareness. This is referred to as the immediate condition. The Four Hundred Verses of Aryadev mentions the logical requirement that a root cause of consciousness must have the potential to transform and have a nature of clarity and awareness. Otherwise, consciousness would either never be produced or it would be produced all the time.

Chapter Three, covers compassion which in Buddhist philosophy is the only root, or foundation of consciousness. The word “only” stresses that compassion is an essential cause of omniscience, but does not negate other causes and conditions. It is on basis of compassion that the awakening mind of bodhicitta is generated. In fact, individuals must rely primarily on logic and reasoning to gain faith and conviction in the philosophy. Objects of knowledge can be broadly classified as obvious phenomenon, partially concealed phenomenon, and completed concealed phenomenon. There is no reason to use logic to prove the existence of obvious phenomena. We can experience and understand then directly and thus ascertain their existence. Since partially concealed phenomena cannot be ascertained through direct experience, they need to be established by applying logic. The object of analysis is then understood by inferential cognition based on experience. Several lines of reasoning may be necessary to achieve the purpose.

Chapter Four, covers developing equanimity or how to meditate on compassion. Compassion is a mind that focusses on the sentient beings that are miserable and wishes them to be free from suffering. Compassion can be of three types, depending on the aspect of wisdom that accompanies it. These three are: compassion focussed on sentient beings, compassion focussed on phenomena, and compassion focussed on the unapprehendable. They are distinguished not in terms of their aspect, but in terms of their object of focus, because all three have the same aspect of wishing sentient beings to be separated from suffering. If we examine the state of our minds, we may see how they segregate sentient beings into three groups – those to whom we feel close, those for whom we feel aversion, and those to whom we are indifferent. Our compassion towards others is one sided and superficial, therefore, in order to generate true compassion for all beings, we must first develop an attitude of equanimity, an impartial thought that views all sentient beings equally. Broadly there are two major techniques for developing equanimity. According to the first, we think about the certainty of relationships, and about impermanence, and suffering, and come to see the futility of clinging to some people and hating others. According to second technique , seeing that all beings are the same in terms of wishing to gain happiness and to be free of suffering, we try to develop an impartial attitude toward all beings. Kamalashila puts this succinctly in his text

After the mind has developed equanimity toward all sentient beings, meditate on loving-kindness. Moisten the mental continuum with the water of loving-kindness and prepare it as you would a piece of fertile ground. When the seed of compassion is planted in such a mind, germination will be swift, proper, and complete. Once you have irrigated the mind stream with loving-kindness, meditate on compassion.

Chapter Five deals with identifying the nature of suffering, so that we can generate compassion and have equanimity towards all sentient beings. Kamalashila deals with the various types of miseries that torture all sentient beings. The three types of miseries are the misery of suffering, the misery of change , and pervasive misery. The misery of suffering refers to what we usually recognize as suffering, physical pain, sickness, and mental anxiety. What we usually recognise as happiness is characterized as the misery of change. Contaminated happiness is not perfect happiness, but rather the mere absence of the grosser kinds of suffering. Since contaminated happiness does not last , but is brought to an end by unpleasantness, it is characterised as misery of change. Pervasive misery refers to sentient being’s collection of mental and physical constituents , known as the contaminated aggregates, which result from past karma and disturbing emotions, and act as agent to generate further karma and more misery. Now how can we get the mental training to be free from such misery. In order to train the mind to be compassionate, you must maintain a practice that includes both formal meditation sessions and awareness during the period that follow. It is important to cultivate a practice that unites a calm abiding mind with special insight. Calm abiding is single-pointed meditation, whereas special insight refers to discriminative awareness. Through the union of these two, you will be able to engage in a fruitful practice of both method and wisdom. Buddha Shakyamuni taught these two practices, calm abiding and special insight, and they are the only methods which you can achieve all the levels of concentration. Kamalashila says in his text

“Yogis cannot eliminate mental obstructions merely by familiarizing themselves with calm abiding meditation alone. It will only suppress the disturbing emotions and delusions temporarily. Without the light of wisdom, the latent potential of the disturbing emotions cannot be thoroughly destroyed, and therefore their complete destruction is not possible.”

Chapter Six explains Wisdom. According to Buddhist tradition, the validity of a philosophical doctrine is determined by logical reasoning. Kamalashila says in his text that “wisdom helps you attain a pure pristine awareness”. Wisdom derived from meditation alone can enable us to eradicate the obscuration to liberation and to knowledge.

Chapter Seven deals with common prerequisites for meditating on calm abiding and special insight. According to the text by Kamalashila, “the prerequisites for the development of calm abiding meditation are: to live in a conducive environment, to limit your desires and practice contentment, not being involved in too many activities, maintaining pure moral ethics, and fully eliminating attachment and all other kinds of conceptual thoughts”. He further states that “a conducive environment should be known by these five characteristics: providing easy access to food and clothes, being free of evil beings and enemies, being free from disease, containing good friends who maintain moral ethics and who share similar views, and being visited by few people in the daytime and with little noise at night. Limiting you desires refer to not being excessively attached to many worldly goods. The practice of contentment means always being satisfied with any little things. Not being involved in many activities refers to giving up ordinary activities like business, avoiding too close association with householders and monks, and totally abandoning the practice of medicine and astrology.

Chapter Eight refers to the practice of calm abiding, which is “that mind which has overcome distraction to external objects, and which spontaneously and continuously turns toward the object of meditation with bliss and pliancy.” First develop the ability to engage in calm abiding meditation by developing mental pliancy and then physical pliancy, so that mind is conjoined with bliss. Calm abiding meditation is a single pointed mind. The object of meditation here is primarily ultimate truth, but conventional phenomena are not excluded. The concentration that generates physical and mental bliss by the force of analysing the object is special insight. Thereafter, a union of calm abiding and special insight is attained. In this context, the mode of meditation is to deliberately stop all kinds of thoughts and perceptions, followed by stopping the mind to reflect on sensory experiences like feelings of joy or misery. Focus the mind on its present and natural state without allowing it to become preoccupied with memories of the past or plans for the future. When mind is free from all kinds of thoughts and concepts, suddenly a form of vacuity will appear. If the mediator tries to gain familiarity with that vacuity, the clarity of the consciousness will naturally become more obvious. Throughout the process of practicing calm abiding meditation, we should be fully aware of the five defects and the eight antidotes. The five defects are laziness, forgetting the object of meditation, mental dullness and excitement, not applying the antidote when afflicted by mental dullness and finally unnecessary application of the antidotes. The eight antidotes are faith, interest, perseverance, pliancy, mindfulness, conscientiousness, application of the antidotes and discarding unnecessary antidotes.

Chapter 9 describes how to actualize special insight. Kamalashila says “after realizing calm abiding, meditate on special insight, thinking as follows: All the teaching of the Buddha are perfect teachings, and they directly or indirectly reveal and lead to suchness with utmost clarity. If you understand suchness, you will be free of all the nets of wrong views, just as darkness is dispelled when light appears”. In order to meditate on the special insight that realizes ultimate reality, we need to develop the wisdom that understands selflessness. Before we can do that, we must search for and identify the self that does not exist. We cannot be satisfied with merely believing in its absence. We must ascertain from the depths of our heart that there is no basis for such a self to exist. Selflessness is of two types: the selflessness of persons and the selflessness of phenomena and both need to be negated. To ordinary perception, a person appears in relation to the mental and physical aggregates as the ruler over the body and mind. This notion of a self-sufficient person, which we ordinarily cling to very strongly, it is the self to be negated. The selflessness of phenomenon refers to the perceived object’s lacking true existence and the perceiving mind’s lacking true existence. The perceived object’s lacking external existence, and the perceiver and the perceived object’s lacking separate identity or substance, constitute the grosser level of the selflessness of phenomena. The analysing wisdom must discern the self to be refuted, after refuting that self, its opposite selflessness will be actualised.

Last chapter looks at unifying method and wisdom. It explains the practice of the union of special insight and calm abiding meditation where practitioner is engaged in the practice of both single pointed meditation and analytical meditation. The practitioner should place equal emphasis on generosity and other practices during the post-meditation period. During the time, dependent origination and emptiness must be understood as interchangeable. Emptiness in this context means that things lack their own intrinsic self-identity; it does nor mean non-existence. Therefore it does not fall into the extreme of nihilism. The implication is that when you understand the philosophy of emptiness, there is no contradiction in presenting the law of cause and effect on the conventional level. Emptiness does not mean nothingness; it means that things are empty of intrinsic existence. The meditation should be continued, with the awareness that full coordination between the method and wisdom aspects is crucial. Through these practices, the meditator becomes fully absorbed in suchness, like water being poured into water, free from the stain of duality.

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I am nobody!

 

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